H. BeleviSwiss Federal Institute for Water Resources and Water Pollution Control, 8600 D
Jacqueline M Bloemhof-Ruwaard2
Joost CL van Buuren3
Jack GAJ van der Vorst2
Wim H Rulkens3
1Van Lang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2Operations Research and Logistics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
3Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Le ThiKimOanh, Van Lang University, 45 Nguyen KhacNhu, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Email: lethikimoanhatvanlanguni.edu.vn
Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing
flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal
solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this
article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing
countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal
solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future
given available infrastructure and cost factors.
Declaration of conflicting interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
O. OsibanjoBasel Convention Regional Centre for Africa for Training and Technology Transfer, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan,
I.C. NnoromDepartment of Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
Information and telecommunications technology (ICT) and computer Internet networking has penetrated nearly every aspect of
modern life, and is positively affecting human life even in the most remote areas of the developing countries. The rapid growth
in ICT has led to an improvement in the capacity of computers but simultaneously to a decrease in the products lifetime as
a result of which increasingly large quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) are generated annually.
ICT development in most developing countries, particularly in Africa, depends more on secondhand or refurbished EEEs most
of which are imported without confirmatory testing for functionality. As a result large quantities of e-waste are presently
being managed in these countries. The challenges facing the developing countries in e-waste management include: an absence
of infrastructure for appropriate waste management, an absence of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste, an absence
of any framework for end-of-life (EoL) product take-back or implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR). This
study examines these issues as they relate to practices in developing countries with emphasis on the prevailing situation
in Nigeria. Effective management of e-waste in the developing countries demands the implementation of EPR, the establishment
of product reuse through remanufacturing and the introduction of efficient recycling facilities. The implementation of a global
system for the standardization and certification/labelling of secondhand appliances intended for export to developing countries
will be required to control the export of electronic recyclables (e-scarp) in the name of secondhand appliances.
Paul H. BrunnerSwiss Federal Institute for Water Resources and Water Pollution Control, CH-8600 D
Impact Factor:1.297 | Ranking:Engineering, Environmental 30 out of 47 | Environmental Sciences 139 out of 221 | 5-Year Impact Factor:1.526 | 5-Year Ranking:Engineering, Environmental 29 out of 47 | Environmental Sciences 136 out of 221
Source:2014 Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Reuters, 2015)